Distribution and fundamental science questions for petroleum geology of marine carbonate in China

TitleDistribution and fundamental science questions for petroleum geology of marine carbonate in China
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsMa Y.S, He D.F, Cai X.Y, Liu B
JournalActa Petrologica Sinica
Volume33
Pagination1007-1020
Date PublishedApr
ISBN Number1000-0569
Accession NumberWOS:000402585200001
KeywordsOil and Gas Degradation
AbstractThe marine carbonate is widely distributed in inland and sea area around China, especially of its occurrence in mainland. The Chinese continent is composed of small-scale cratonic continental blocks, micro-continental blocks, and the intervening orogenic belts. The marine Paleozoic basins, developing upon those cratonic blocks, are characterized by small in scale, differentiated markedly in the basin interior, and modified extensively along the basin margins. The marine carbonates are deeply buried and highly thermal matured owing to the overlying Mesozoic and Cenozoic thick strata with a result of the strong heterogeneity of reservoirs and much complex for oil and gas pool-formation and occurrence. Since the discoveries of Weiyuan Gas Field in 1964 and Jingbian Gas Field in 1989, especially of such giant or super-giant oil and gas fields as Puguang, Yuanba, Tahe, and Anyue found in the recent years, the prospection for petroleum exploration in marine carbonate tends to be much more promising. The long-period exploration discovers the four types of reservoir in marine carbonate such as the reef and shoals, dolomites, karst caves, and fracture zones, which are controlled by the deposition, diagenesis, and tectonic evolution. The reef and shoals, the karst caves along slopes, the dissolution weathering crusts, and the fracture zones all have the potential to being large-scale pool-formed. At present, the on-going study and exploration on marine carbonate is faced to lots of key questions. As for the basic science, it' s involved in the old biocoene, paleo-ecology, paloeclimate, and paleo-geography and its coupling relationships, the genesis of cratonic basin and the mechanism for its tectonic and depositional differentiation, the proto-basin and its evolution, as well as the sedimentary filling, and so on. As far as the oil and gas exploration is concerned, it' s cared about the reconstruction of litho-facies paleo-geography, the description of carbonate platform margin, the delineation of the intra-structure of the platform, the superimposed and modified mechanism for multi-period reservoirs, the classification for karst reservoirs, and the description and evaluation of the heterogeneity carbonate reservoirs. It is needed to explore the linkage between the source rock and reservoir body, the processes for oil and gas pool-formation, the perseverance and adjustment or redistribution, and the principle for oil and gas enrichment and occurrence. The paper put forward to study the marine carbonate from a viewpoint of systematic and dynamic thought, to explore the whole factors and full processes for the "basin formation, diagenesis, reservoir formation, and the pool-formation", delineate the distribution of the paleo-rift trough, the paleo-platform, and the paleo-uplift, to make sure of the location of hydrocarbon source rocks, the distribution of the favorable reservoirs, such as the reef and shoals, dolomite, the along stratified and intervening stratified karst and fracture zones, and their coupling relationships, and to establish the oil and gas pool-formation models conserving to the real data. It will found a basis for the appraisal of oil and gas resource potential and prospection for favorable plays, and helpful for the continual oil and gas discoveries in the marine carbonate around China.